The Bologna Process is a term which implies the political purpose of creating the European Higher Education Area (EHEA) by creating a standard of academic titles.
The Bologna Process began when education ministers from 29 European countries signed the Bologna Declaration in the city of Bologna on June 19, 1999. The member list expanded at subsequent meetings in Prague (2001), Berlin (2003), Bergen (2005), London (2007), Leuve (2009) and Vienna (2010). Today almost all European countries and Russia participate in this process. Bosnia and Herzegovina became a signatory to the Bologna Process in 2003. Monaco and San Marino are the only member states of the Council of Europe which have not acceded to the Bologna process (although they may be considered to have joined the Bologna process after France and Italy have completed the implementation). Belarus and Kazakhstan have been invited to become signatories.
The Bologna Process refers to the reform of the structure of higher education in all signatories.
The fundamentals of the Process are accepted in three cycle degree system of higher education qualifications. As stated in Bergen Declaration (2005), the cycles are defined in terms of qualifications and European Credit Transfer and Accumulation System (ECTS) as follows:
1st cycle: typically 180-240 ECTS credits, usually awarding a Bachelor's degree;
2nd cycle: typically 90-120 ECTS credits (a minimum of 60 on 2nd-cycle level), usually awarding a Master's degree;
3rd cycle: Doctoral degree. No ECTS range is given.
A system of credits may vary from country to country. One academic year corresponds to 60 ECTS credits which are equivalent to 1.500 to 1.800 hours of study. The new model comes closer to the North American and Japanese. It is focused on practical training and intensive research projects. Credits are appointed according to the estimation of students’ work. New evaluation methods reflect not only the efficiency of students in exams, but also in laboratory experiments and presentations, as well as the time spent on studies, further innovation capacity, and so on.
The Bologna Process is a reforming process with the aim of taking public responsibility for higher education and science, higher education management, the social dimension of higher education and research, as well as the value and role of higher education and research in modern, globalized and increasingly complex societies with demanding qualification needs. According to Bologna Process, higher education in European countries should be organized in such a way as to enable:
Mobility, i.e., easy mobility from one country to another (within the European Higher Education Area) for the purpose of further study or employment;
Attractiveness, i.e., increasing attractiveness of European higher education, so many people from non-European countries may also come to study and / or work in Europe;
Employability – Europe offers a broad, high quality and advanced knowledge base, and ensures the further development of Europe as a stable, peaceful and tolerant community within the European Research Area.
There will be a greater convergence between the US and Europe, as well. Therefore, European higher education is acquiring the aspects of American educational system.
Following sub-objectives were defined as follows:
Adopting a system of easily readable and comparable degrees;
Adopting a system of two cycles (undergraduate/graduate) and corresponding Bachelor’s and Master’s diplomas;
Introduction of the assessment system, European Credit Transfer and Accumulation System (ECTS);
Joint work to increase quality;
Promotion of European dimensions in higher education;
Promotion of lifelong learning;
Promotion of cooperation between educational establishments;
Enhancing the attractiveness of the European higher education;
Unification of European higher education with the European research prostrate, particularly through the introduction of the doctoral phase in the Bologna Process;
A further objective is integration as a social dimension.
COMPLIANCE OF STUDY PROGRAMMES WITH THE BOLOGNA DECLARATION
The organization of teaching process ensures the continuous work of teachers and students.
All the subjects last one semester.
Knowledge check is regular; final grades result from it.
Optional subjects (courses)
Work in small groups
BASIC TERMINOLOGY FROM THE BOLOGNA DECLARATION
ECTЅ (European Credit Transfer System) is a unique system of credits assigned to individual courses (as well as other forms of mastering the curriculum). ECTS provides transparency and facilitates the recognition of (part of) studies performed at another institution of higher education and is a prerequisite to mobility.
BACHELOR’S DEGREE represents a higher education qualification that corresponds quantitatively to 180-240 ECTS credits, which corresponds to three or four year full-time study. Bachelor’s programmes (240 ECTS credits) last 4 years in our Academy.
MASTER’S DEGREE is the next higher education qualification. It usually requires the completion of a Bachelor’s programme at a recognized higher education institution. A Master's degree is not only awarded to students who have demonstrated and significantly expanded the knowledge linked to the first cycle, but they also established a foundation or an opportunity for the development and implementation of original ideas (usually through research). Master’s programmes (300 ECTS credits) last 1 year, i.e., five-year bachelor’s/master’s programs are available at our institution.
DIPLOMA SUPPLEMENT is a document issued together with the diploma; it contains a list of the exams passed and their ECTS value as well as other provisions that are not listed in the diploma but they are important for understanding programmes (curriculums). The Diploma Supplement shows objective data and enables international transparency and comparability of qualifications.